Smith, William Farley. “Cries of Freedom in Afro-American Spirituals: and Black History Month Recognition.” Drew Gateway 61 (1991): 60–70.
Presents an overview of slaves during antebellum America. The African American leaders in the churches encouraged slaves to rise and strike for freedom. One particular pastor was Henry Highland Garnet, an advocate of militant abolitionism from Buffalo, New York. Supports Garnet’s work and argues that it is theologically sound, as are 98 percent of the slave songs. With that in mind, Smith outlines a potential order of worship for a Martin Luther King Jr. birthday and African American History Month recognition. Includes a brief bibliography of collections, writings, and commentaries on slave songs.